Sunday, June 27, 2010

Impression Evidence

This type of evidence is created when one object is pressed against another material such as soil with enough force that an impression is made of the object. Although soil is used as an example here, any material that can be manipulated with force may contain impression evidence. Other such materials may be wet cement or tar, wood, snow and even metal. Most only think of shoes and tires when considering impression evidence, but tools and bullets can also cause impressions.

Shoe impressions can provide a great deal of information for investigators about the offender. First, a shoe impression can allow the identification of the type of shoe worn by the offender, although this may only be considered class evidence if there is not any defects or wear that might allow for individualization of the specific shoe. Individual wear patterns on a shoe can be caused by the way a person walks or if the shoe is used in an area such as on gravel or hot tar that causes unique defects. If a specific shoe can be identified and linked to a suspect, this can be used to prove that the suspect was at the crime scene. If there is a series of crimes where shoe impressions were found, this can be used to link the cases as being committed by the same offender. Several different shoe impressions at a crime scene can assist in identifying more than one offender responsible for a crime. Depending upon the condition of the soil and when the crime scene is found, it may be possible to use shoe impressions to estimate the size of the offender by measuring the depth of the impression as compared to a known sample.

Tire impressions can be used to identify the type of tire on the offender's vehicle by comparing the impression against a database of known treads by manufacturer. Like shoes, tires provide class evidence unless individual characteristics can be determined. Individual characteristics can be caused by defects and uneven wear on the tire that would identify it as a specific tire related to the crime. Causes for defects and uneven wear on a tire can be caused by nails, gravel, past attempts to patch the tire, and by unbalanced tires or from frequent sudden stops that result in skidding.

Tools create marks when they come into contact with materials with sufficient force. Wire cutters, bolt cutters, screwdrivers, and crow bars are often used to pry open windows and doors and will leave evidence where they came into contact with materials.

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Did Aliens Create Humans?

Does the name Zecharia Sitchin ring a bell? Zecharia Sitchin is the 90-year-old author of 13 best-selling books. That did not make him a celebrity. Some would describe him as a fringe celebrity. Born in the Soviet Union, Zecharia Sitchin now lives in an apartment in New York. Sitchin released his 14th book this month.

This book, There Were Giants Upon the Earth: Gods, Demigods, and Human Ancestry: The Evidence of Alien DNA, is being hailed as the crowning glory of his Earth-chronicle series. The book reveals the existence of physical evidence of alien presence on Earth in the distant past. Since his first book, The 12th Planet, for 60 years on, this space age theorist has been out to prove that humans were genetically programmed by extraterrestrials, thousands of years ago. Zecharia Sitchin primarily relies on ancient texts and parallels drawn from Biblical tales to prove his theories.

At 90, Zecharia Sitchin is no ordinary alien researcher. He is a recognised scholar who writes well and convincingly. His 13 books have sold millions of copies and have been translated into 25 languages. Advance sales of his latest book have been more than expected. He’s studied at the University of London. The New York Times profiled him in January this year. The 12th Planet is now in its 45th printing.

In The 12th Planet, Sitchin propagated his basic theory that a 12th planet named Nibiru swung past Earth thousands of years ago. The inhabitants of Nibiru were dropped off at earth and ancient Middle Eastern cultures such as Mesopotamia worshipped them as gods. Basing his interpretation largely on the basis of texts preserved on clay tablets from this era, Sitchin claims these aliens were the Annunaki named in Sumerian scriptures, and the Nephilim alluded to in the Bible.

In subsequent books, Sitchin claimed that our alien ancestors genetically manipulated human DNA to pass on some of their vital traits, such as intelligence. But the aliens deliberately held back the knowledge of something known to them – immortality.

In possibly his last attempt to widespread acceptance of his outlandish theories, Sitchin is back with his latest book which recaps all his unorthodox interpretations built over decades. He’s also making claims to stake everything he’s said so far on DNA tests that could be performed on the 4500-year-old remains of a Sumerian woman (‘Puabi) of high rank.

The author has appealed to the Natural History Museum in London (where the remains lie) to allow international experts to extract DNA from her bones to compare her genome to humans.

Puabi, claims Sitchin, is a direct descendant of extraterrestrial visitors to Earth. A DNA test on her could reveal the vital missing link-‘alien genes’ which transformed wild hominids to humans about 300,000 years ago.

Critics have slammed Sitchin as Sitchin as a pseudo-historian and a fraud for his naïve interpretations of ancient text. The Skeptic’s Dictionary says Sitchin is ‘scientifically illiterate, weaving a compelling and entertaining story out of facts, misrepresentations, fictions, speculations, misquotes, and mistranslations.’

Probing the history of Puabi is unlikely to yield secrets to longevity or any missing links in human genes, but it may reveal the wisdom knowledge of another ancient civilization.

The search for the 12th planet, continues…



ANGLE OF IMPACT - The acute angle formed between the direction of a blood drop and the plane of the surface it strikes.

ARTERIAL SPURTING (OR GUSHING) PATTERN - Bloodstain pattern(s) resulting from blood exiting the body under pressure from a breached artery.

BACK SPATTER - Blood directed back towards the source of energy or force that caused the spatter.

BLOODSTAIN - Evidence that liquid blood has come into contact with a surface.

BUBBLE RINGS - Rings in blood that result when blood containing air bubbles dries and retains the bubble's circular configuration as a dried outline.

CAST-OFF PATTERN - A bloodstain pattern created when blood is released or thrown from a blood-bearing object in motion.

DIRECTIONALITY - The directionality of a bloodstain or pattern which indicates the direction the blood was traveling when it impacted the target surface. Directionality of a blood drop's flight can usually be established from the geometric shape of its bloodstain.

DIRECTIONALITY ANGLE - The angle between the long axis of a bloodstain and a predetermined line on the plane of the target surface which represents 0 degrees.

DIRECTION OF FLIGHT - The trajectory of a blood drop which can be established by its angle of impact and directionality angle.

DRAW-BACK EFFECT - Blood in the barrel of a firearm that has been drawn backward into the muzzle.

DRIP PATTERN - A bloodstain pattern which results from blood dripping into blood.

EXPIRATED BLOOD - Blood that is blown out of the nose, mouth, or a wound as a result of air pressure and/or air flow which is the propelling force.

FLIGHT PATH - The path of the blood drop, as it moves through space, from the impact site to the target.

FLOW PATTERN - A change in the shape and direction of a bloodstain due to the influence of gravity or movement of the object.

FORWARD SPATTER - Blood which travels in the same direction as the source of energy or force which caused the spatter.

HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT SPATTER (HVIS) - A bloodstain pattern caused by a high velocity impact\force to a blood source such as that produced by gunshot or high speed machinery.

IMPACT PATTERN - Bloodstain pattern created when blood receives a blow or force resulting in the random dispersion of smaller drops of blood.

IMPACT SITE - That point where force encounters a source of blood.

LOW VELOCITY IMPACT SPATTER (LVIS) - A bloodstain pattern that is caused by a low velocity impact\force to a blood source.

MEDIUM VELOCITY IMPACT SPATTER (MVIS) - A bloodstain pattern caused by a medium velocity impact\force to a blood source. A beating typically causes this type of spatter.

MISTING - Blood which has been reduced to a fine spray, as a result of the energy or force applied to it.

PARENT DROP - A drop of blood from which a wave, cast-off, or satellite spatter


PASSIVE DROP(BLEEDING) - Bloodstain drop(s) created or formed by the force of gravity acting alone.

POINT (AREA) OF CONVERGENCE - The common point (area), on a two dimensional surface, over which the directionality of several blood drops can be retraced.

POINT (AREA) OF ORIGIN - The common point (area) in three dimensional space to which the trajectories of several blood drops can be retraced.

PROJECTED BLOOD PATTERN - A bloodstain pattern that is produced by blood released under pressure as opposed to an impact, such as arterial spurting.

RICOCHET - The deflection of blood after impact with a target surface that results in staining of a second target surface.

SATELLITE SPATTER - Small droplets of blood that are distributed around a drop or pool of blood as a result of the blood impacting the target surface.

PERIMETER STAIN - A bloodstain that consists of only its outer periphery, the central area having been removed by wiping or flaking after liquid blood has partially or completely dried.

SPATTER - That blood which has been dispersed as a result of force applied to a source of blood. Patterns produced are often characteristic of the nature of the forces which created them.

SPINE - The pointed or elongated stains which radiate away from the central area of a bloodstain.

SWIPE PATTERN - The transfer of blood from a moving source onto a unstained

surface. Direction of travel may be determined by the feathered edge.

TARGET - A surface upon which blood has been deposited.

TRANSFER/CONTACT PATTERN - A bloodstain pattern created when a wet, bloody surface comes in contact with a second surface. A recognizable image of all or a portion of the original surface may be observed in the pattern.

VOID - An absence of stains in an otherwise continuous bloodstain pattern.

WAVE CAST-OFF - A small blood drop that originates from a parent drop of blood due to the wave-like action of the liquid in conjunction with striking a surface.

WIPE PATTERN - A bloodstain pattern created when an object moves through an existing stain, removing and/or altering its appearance.

Blood spatter at the scene of a crime can be useful in reconstructing what and how events took place by determining the location of the source of the blood source or the direction of movement. Blood spatter can also help determine whether a person was at the crime scene during the offense. There is a very basic classification system of spatter patterns, which is based upon the velocity of the object causing the impact upon the blood source and the size of the resulting blood pattern or spatter evidence.

Low Velocity - This type of spatter is usually caused by an impact to the blood source at a rate of 5 feet per second and is usually about 4 millimeters in diameter.

Medium Velocity - This type of spatter is usually caused by an impact to the blood source at a rate of 5-25 feet per second. Stains caused by this type of force are usually 1-3 millimeters in diameter, but may be larger or smaller.

High Velocity - This type of spatter is usually caused by an impact to the blood source in excess of 100 feet per second and is usually less than 1 millimeter in diameter, although it can be larger or smaller.

When blood hits a surface at an angle other than 90 degrees, the direction of it's path will be able to be viewed, interpreted and measured, which allows investigators to reconstruct what and how something occurred.

Although the picture to the left is is computer generated and not very realistic in appearance, it was made to look the way it is to exemplify how the direction of the path of blood can be indicated by "tail" of the stain. In this example, the blood traveled from the lower left to upper right. If an investigator was attempting to determine where the source of the blood was when the stain was made, an equation can be used, which will give an accurate location.

Bloodstains are a source of important forensic evidence regarding:

  • Origin(s) of bloodstain
  • Distance of bloodstain from target
  • Direction from which blood impacted
  • Speed with which blood left its source
  • Position of victim & assailant
  • Movement of victim & assailant
  • Number of blows/shots

Characteristics of liquid blood

Specific gravity,

Viscosity ,

Surface Tension is a characteristic of liquids whereby they are resistant to penetration or separation. The surface acts to reduce surface area. A small mass of liquid which becomes detached becomes rounded into a sphere; the shape gives the minimum service area for any given volume; a falling blood drop is not tear-drop shaped.

For instance, blood flowing downwards towards the fingertips from a cut on the hand accumulates on the fingertip and increases in volume until the gravitational pull (its weight) exceeds surface tension

Such droplets will have a fairly uniform of volume of 50 ml (0.05 ml). More rapid bleeding may result in slightly larger drops but slower bleeding does not result in smaller drops. Blood cast from a moving source will tend to consist of smaller droplets

Blood behaves as a projectile in motion and obeys the laws of physics and mathematics.

Terminal velocity of falling droplets

erminal velocity of the falling blood drop depends on its size.
Smaller drops have a lower terminal velocity and acquire it after a shorter fall distance.
Larger droplets accelerate over a greater distance and therefore attain a greater terminal velocity.

Size of the bloodstain

The size of the blood stain depends more on the nature of the target surface than on the distance fallen.

The size of the resulting blood spot will vary only slightly with increasing fall distance and above a fall distance of seven feet there is little change in the diameter of the blood spot.

The size of the falling blood drop will obviously affect the size of the resulting blood stain.

Shape of the blood spot

The shape of the blood spot depends mostly on the texture of the target surface. Blood spots landing on smooth glass will be consistent and uniform in shape (circular) where mass blood spots landing on textured surfaces such as paper and wood will be of variable shape and will have irregular edge characteristics.

Target surface characteristics and splatter

Drops striking hard, non-porous surfaces result in less peripheral spatter as the surface film of the spreading droplet remains intact. Drops striking irregular porous surfaces result in a greater degree of spatter since the spreading drop is disturbed by surface irregularities. This situation is analogous to a water-filled rubber balloon which will bounce off a smooth surface but will rupture on an irregular surface. Estimation of distance fallen based on measurements of spot diameter will be erroneous if the target surface texture is not considered.

Angled impact: vertical drop onto tilted target

Blood striking a smooth surface at 90 degrees results in an approximately circular blood stain.
As the angle of impact becomes a more oblique the blood stain becomes more elongated and its length to width ratio increases.

Impact Angle = arc sin (width of stain/ length ofstain)
Accurate measurement of the blood stain is required

Effect of horizontal motion

A blood spot striking a horizontal surface with a horizontal component to its motion will have a characteristic pattern due to a small drop being cast off from the far edge of the main droplet. This appearance is quite different to a drop falling vertically onto an angled or tilted surface. With experience it is possible to tell whether blood fell vertically on to tilted surface obliquely from a person walking or running

Point of convergence

Drawing lines along long axis of several stains will show a point of convergence at their origin.

Point of origin

ies at a point in space above the point of convergence. Measurement of impact angle allows translation of 2-D image (convergence) into 3-D (origin) . In practice (at a crime scene), strings, tapes and protractors are commonly used. Computer programs are also used.

Blood spatter patterns are classified according to the velocity with which the blood is struck

Experiments performed by Herb MacDonell

Projected and cast-off blood spatter
Blood projected at velocity exceeding that of gravity often results in a spatter pattern wave irregular spiny edges around the central bloodstain. Running or stepping into a pool of blood is typical of this pattern. Blood may also be cast off a bloodstained weapon. Such staining it is often apparent on the walls and ceiling in indoor situations. The direction and origin of the backswing is often clearly discernible. The number and sequence of swings may also be discernible.

Low velocity blood spatter

Blood source subjected to a low velocity impact (less than 1.5 m/s or 5 ft per second) e.g. free-falling blood under the influence of gravity,
blood cast off from fist shoe, weapon, dripping, splashing
Blood spots mostly 4-8 mm in diameter

Dripped blood

When blood trips into itself, many small droplets are projected upwards into the air and impact around the central irregular blood pool at in the right angles and obliquely, resulting in surrounding circular and oval blood at splatter patterns.

Splashed blood

Blood volumes exceeding 1 ml, travelling at a velocity of less than 5 ft per second ( m/s) or subjected to a minor impact, squirted (slide 42-44), thrown against a vertical surface (slide 45), or stamped in (slide 46-49)
Results in an irregular central splashing pattern, surrounded by directional elongated blood spots.

Arterial spurting

Medium velocity blood spatter

Blood source subjected to a medium velocity impact (about 7.5-30 m/s pr 25-100 ft/s)
e.g. blows with a baseball bat, hammer, axe or similar instrument
Blood spots typically about 4 mm in diameter

High velocity blood spatter

Blood source subjected to a high velocity impact (>7.5 m/s or 100 ft/s) e.g. gunshot or a high velocity machinery

Blood spots typically less than 1 mm in diameter (a fine mist)

Back spatter results from blood being blown back from entry wound towards the firer and weapon

Forward spatter is usually more florid, arising from the exit wound and passes in the same direction as the projectile

Wipe patterns

Object moves through a wet bloodstain. Feathered edge suggests direction

Transfer patterns

Wet, bloodied object contacts a secondary surface
Transfer from hand, fingers, shoes, weapon, hair

ransfer to walls, ceilings, clothing, bedding.
Produces mirror-image of bloodied object

Flow pattern

Blood flows horizontally & vertically, altered by contours, obstacles. Often ends in a pool .

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

The Lost Lands of Mu and Lemuria

Was Australia Once Part of a Sunken Continent?

Lemuria and Mu are interchangeable names given to a lost land believed to have been located somewhere in either the southern Pacific or Indian Oceans. This ancient continent was apparently the home of an advanced and highly spiritual culture, perhaps the mother race of all mankind, but it sank beneath the waves many thousands of years ago as the result of a geological cataclysm of some kind.

The thousands of rocky islands scattered throughout the Pacific, including Easter Island, Tahiti, Hawaii and Samoa, have been claimed by some to be the only surviving remains of this once great continent. The theory of a lost continent in this area has been put forward by many different people, most notably in the mid 19th century by scientists in order to explain the unusual distribution of various animals and plants around the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
In the late 19th century occultist Madame Blavatsky reincarnated the idea of Lemuria as a lost continent / spiritual homeland and influenced a host of subsequent occultists and mystics including well known American psychic healer and Prophet Edgar Cayce. The popularisation of Lemuria / Mu as a purely physical place began in the 20th century with ex-British army officer Colonel James Churchward, and the idea still has many adherents today.
But is there any physical evidence to back up these claims of an ancient continent beneath the Pacific or Indian Ocean? Or should these ‘lost homeland’ stories be interpreted in another way entirely, perhaps as the symbol of a mythical vanished ‘Golden Age’ of man?

The Land of Mu

The idea of a lost continent known as ‘Mu’ in the Pacific Ocean does not actually have a particularly long history, neither is it mentioned specifically in any ancient mythologies as some writers have suggested. The title ‘Mu’ originated with eccentric amateur archaeologist Augustus le Plongeon (1826-1908), who was the first to make photographical records of the ruins of the archaeological site of Chichen Itza in Yucatán, Mexico. Plongeon’s credibility was badly damaged by his attempted translation of a Mayan book known as the ‘Troana Codex’ (also known as the ‘Madrid Codex’).
In his books Sacred Mysteries Among the Mayans and Quiches (1886) and Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx (1896) Plongeon interpreted part of the text of the Troana Codex as revealing that the Maya of Yucatán were the ancestors of the Egyptians and many other civilisations. He also believed that an ancient continent, which he called Mu, had been destroyed by a volcanic eruption, the survivors of this cataclysm founding the Mayan civilisation. Plongeon equates Mu with Atlantis and states that a ‘Queen Moo’ originally from Atlantis, travelled to Egypt where she became known as Isis, and founded the Egyptian civilisation. However, Plongeon’s interpretation of the Mayan book is considered by experts in Mayan archaeology and history as completely erroneous, indeed much of what he interpreted as hieroglyphics turned out to be ornamental design.


‘Lemuria’, the alternative name for the lost continent, also originated in the nineteenth century. Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919), a German naturalist and supporter of Darwin, proposed that a land bridge spanning the Indian Ocean separating Madagascar from India could explain the widespread distribution of lemurs, small, primitive tree-dwelling mammals found in Africa, Madagascar, India and the East Indian archipelago. More bizarrely, Haeckel also suggested that lemurs were the ancestors of the human race and that this land bridge was the “probable cradle of the human race.”
Other well-known scientists, such as the evolutionist T.H. Huxley and the naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace, had no doubt about the existence of a huge continent in the Pacific millions of years previously, which had been destroyed in a disastrous earthquake that submerged it beneath the waves, much as Atlantis was thought to have been drowned.
Before the discovery of continental drift it was not unusual in the mid to late 19th century for scientists to propose submerged land masses and land bridges to explain the distribution of the world’s flora and fauna. In 1864, the English zoologist Philip Lutley Sclater (1829-1913) gave the hypothetical continent the name ‘Lemuria’ in an article ‘The Mammals of Madagascar’ in The Quarterly Journal of Science, and since then it has stuck.

The Geologists’ View

Zoologists and geologists now explain the distribution of lemurs and other plants and animals in the area of the Pacific and Indian Oceans to be the result of plate tectonics and continental drift. The theory of plate tectonics, and it is still a theory, affirms that moving plates of the Earth’s crust supported on less rigid mantle rocks causes continental drift, volcanic and seismic activity, and the formation of mountain chains. The concept of continental drift was first proposed by German scientist Alfred Wegener in 1912, but the theory did not gain general acceptance in the scientific community for another 50 years.
With this understanding of plate tectonics geologists now regard the theory of a sunken continent beneath the Pacific as an impossibility. They also point out that theories of lost lands in the Pacific mostly originate in the 19th century, when knowledge of the area was limited and well before the Pacific sea floor had been mapped.

Blavatsky’s Lemuria

The idea of Lemuria as something more than a physical place, or at least somewhere which had been inhabited by non-human entities before the appearance of man, derives from the writings of colourful Russian occultist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). Blavatsky was the co-founder, together with lawyer Henry Steel Olcott, of the Theosophical Society, in New York in 1875. The Society was an esoteric order designed to study the mystical teachings of both Christianity and Eastern religions.
In her massive tome The Secret Doctrine (1888) Blavatsky describes a history originating millions of years ago with the ‘Lords of Flame’ and goes on to discusses five ‘Root Races’ which have existed on earth, each one dying out in an earth-shattering cataclysm. The third of these Root Races she called the ‘Lemurian’, which lived a million years ago, and who were bizarre telepathic giants who kept dinosaurs as pets.
The Lemurians eventually drowned when their continent was submerged beneath the Pacific Ocean. The progeny of the Lemurians was the fourth Root Race, the human Atlanteans, who were brought down by their use of black magic, their continent of Atlantis sinking beneath the waves 850,000 years ago. Present humanity represents the Fifth Root Race.
Blavatsky envisioned her Lemuria as covering a vast area. In her own words it stretched from

...the foot of the Himalayas, which separated it from the inland sea rolling its waves over what is now Tibet, Mongolia, and the great desert of Schamo (Gobi); from Chittagong, westward to Hardwar, and eastward to Assam. From thence, it stretched South across what is known to us as Southern India, Ceylon, and Sumatra; then embracing on its way, as we go South, Madagascar on its right hand and Australia and Tasmania on its left, it ran down to within a few degrees of the Antarctic Circle; when, from Australia, an inland region on the Mother Continent in those ages, it extended far into the Pacific Ocean...

Blavatsky also describes survivors of the catastrophic destruction of Lemuria escaping to become the ancestors of some of the Aboriginal tribes of Australia. She maintained that she took all of her information regarding Lemuria from ‘The Book of Dzyan’, supposed to have been written in Atlantis and shown to her by the Indian adepts known as ‘Mahatmas’.
Madame Blavatsky never claimed to have discovered Lemuria; in fact she refers to Philip Schlater coining the name Lemuria, in her writings. It has to be said that The Secret Doctrine is an extremely difficult book, a complex mixture of Eastern and Western cosmologies, mystical ramblings and esoteric wisdom, much of it not meant to be taken literally.
Blavatsky’s is the first ‘occult’ interpretation of Lemuria, but on one level it should not be equated with the physical continent later proposed by Churchward. What Blavatsky and other occultists since have suggested concerning Lemuria could be partly interpreted as an ideal spiritual condition of the soul, a kind of spiritual-historical vision.
Nevertheless, there are some psychics and prophets who even today regard the existence of ancient Lemuria / Mu as a physical reality. Indeed, there are a few who when ‘hypnotically regressed’ have recalled former lives as citizens on the doomed continent.

Lemuria and Australia

The writings of Blavatsky and other Theosophists about Lemuria, and the idea of Australia as part of this ancient lost continent and the scene of a lost golden age, had a significant influence on mystics and occultists in the country at the end of the 19th century.
Queensland-born novelist Rosa Campbell Praed represented Australia as the last remnant of ancient Lemuria and believed the myth of the lost continent to be based on fact. In Praed’s case, she used the theosophical idea of Lemuria to present an idealised primeval history of Australia, a land very different to the Queensland frontier country wracked by racial violence she had witnessed first-hand as a child.
Other evidence for this fascination with ancient Lemuria comes in the series of Australian adventure of the 1890s known as “the Lemurian novels.” In The Last Lemurian, written in 1898 by historian of Australian exploration and adventure-romance novelist George Firth Scott, the narrator Dick Halwood discovers the remains of legendary Lemuria out in the Australian desert, in a plot involving reincarnation, pygmies, a bunyip-monster, and an occult Yellow Queen.
John David Hennessey’s An Australian Bush Track (1896) calls Lemuria ‘Zoo-Zoo land’, and locates it somewhere in northern Queensland. Its inhabitants, the Zoo-Zooans, are a “remnant of a great nation which came there from some part of the mainland of Asia,” but had lost all the arts of high civilisation they once possessed. The Lost Explorer (1890) by James Francis Hogan has Lemuria as ‘Malua’, located in the centre of Australia, and ruled by the cannibalistic Queen Mocata, the last survivor of a superior race that once lived in “the interior of the great southern continent.”
The idea that Australia was once part of this lost Eden has also influenced those of a more practical bent, and attempts have been made to locate traces of Lemurian civilisation on both the west and east coasts of Australia.
Aboriginal art, artefacts and mythology have also been used to identify the Aborigines as prehistoric remnants of the Lemurians (following Blavatsky again), who somehow escaped the devastation of 20,000 or so years ago. Indeed, in some Theosophical publications of the first quarter of the 20th century Aborigines were described as the last of the Lemurians. However, the Aborigines of Australia had already been established on the continent for at least 30,000 years at the time of the supposed destruction of Lemuria, in fact they have perhaps the longest continuous cultural history of any people on Earth, so the theory of them having a Lemurian origin does not hold water.

Colonel James Churchward

The lost civilisation of Lemuria / Mu was brought dramatically back to public attention in 1931 with the publication of Colonel James Churchward’s bizarre The Lost Continent of Mu, the first in a series of five books by Churchward about the lost continent.
In the book he claimed that the lost continent of Mu had once extended from an area north of Hawaii southwards as far as Fiji and Easter Island. According to Churchward, Mu was the original Garden of Eden and a technologically advanced civilisation which boasted 64,000,000 inhabitants. Around 12,000 years ago Mu was wiped out by an earthquake and submerged beneath the Pacific. Apparently Atlantis, a colony of Mu, was destroyed in the same way a thousand years later. All the world’s major ancient civilisations, from the Babylonians and the Persians, to the Maya and the Egyptians, were the remains of the colonies of Mu.
Churchward claimed he received this sensational information when, as a young officer in India during a famine in the 1880s, he became friendly with an Indian priest. This priest told Churchward that he and two cousins were the only
survivors of a 70,000 year old esoteric order which originated on Mu itself. This order was known as the ‘Naacal Brotherhood’.
The priest showed Churchward a number of ancient tablets written by the Naacal Order in a forgotten ancient language, supposed to be the original language of mankind, which he taught the officer to read. Churchward later asserted that certain stone artefacts recovered in Mexico contained parts of the ‘Sacred Inspired Writings of Mu’, perhaps taking ideas from Augustus le Plongeon and his use of the Troana Codex to provide evidence for the existence of Mu.
Unfortunately, Churchward never produced any evidence to back up his exotic claims, he never published translations of the enigmatic Naacal tablets, and his books, though they still have many followers today, are perhaps better read as entertainment than factual studies of Lemuria / Mu.

Nan Madol

It was James Churchward who first posited the theory that the site of Nan Modal, on Pohnpei Island in the North Pacific Ocean, was one of the seven cities of ancient Mu / Lemuria.
The cyclopean ruins of Nan Modal, at one time a ceremonial centre covering 11 square miles, consist of around 90 small artificial islands built up out of a lagoon, and interlinked by a network of tidal canals. These islands, situated on the tidal flats southeast of Temwen Island, Micronesia, contain house foundations, sea walls – thirty feet tall in places, tunnels and burial vaults, all constructed entirely from prismatic basalt columns stacked crisscross like log cabins. These rocks weigh several tons on average, with the largest weighing 25 tons.
What makes the construction all the more remarkable is that the stone had to be transported some distance to the site, as no quarries have been found nearby, though they do exist elsewhere on the island. A clue to how this feat was achieved are crystal basalt columns discovered at the bottom of the lagoon near Temwen Island and on the shores of other islets in the area, which would suggest that the stones were transported by raft.
Modern Pohnpeians, on the other hand, believe the stones were flown over the island using black magic. Radio carbon dates and analysis of pottery from Nan Madol reveal that construction of the site began around 1200 CE, though the area may have been occupied from as early as 200 BCE. Such dates would certainly preclude any connection with Churchward’s Lemurians or their descendents.
At the beginning of the 13th century CE the island of Pohnpei is thought to have been conquered and unified by the mysterious ‘saudeleur’ dynasty, and it was then that the spectacular complex was constructed as a ceremonial and political seat for the new royal line. The saudeleur line was brought to an end in the 1500s by exiled Pohnpeian warrior, Isokelekel. The new chiefs, known as Nahnmwarki, occupied Nan Madol for a couple of hundred years, but by the 1800’s when the first Europeans arrived, the site was deserted. Why this happened remains one of the many mysteries of this incredible site.

The Kerguelen Continent

In the last twenty or so years submerged civilisations have once again been in the news due in particular to a number of intriguing underwater discoveries. In 1999 the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) Resolution research vessel made an amazing discovery drilling in an area of the southern Indian Ocean about 3,000 km to the southwest of Australia.
The researchers discovered that an underwater plateau about a third the size of Australia, known as the Kerguelen Plateau, was actually the remains of a lost continent, which sank beneath the waves around 20 million years ago. The team found fragments of wood, a seed, spores and pollen, in 90 million year old sediment, as well as types of rocks associated with explosive volcanism.
One of the many fascinating points about the Kerguelen Plateau is that it contains sedimentary rocks similar to those found in India and Australia, which indicates that they were at one time connected. Scientists believe that around 50 million years ago, the continent may have had tropical flora and fauna, including small dinosaurs. With further research planned, the fascinating puzzle of the Kerguelen Plateau may yet resurrect the Lemuria debate.

Yonaguni Island and the Gulf of Cambay

In 1985 off the southern coast of Yonaguni Island, the westernmost island of Japan, a Japanese dive tour operator discovered a previously unknown stepped pyramidal edifice. Shortly afterwards, Professor Masaki Kimura, a marine geologist at Ryukyu University in Okinawa, confirmed the existence of the 183m wide, 27m high structure.
This rectangular stone ziggurat, part of a complex of underwater stone structures in the area which resemble ramps, steps and terraces, is thought to date from somewhere between 3,000 to 8,000 years ago. Some researchers have suggested these ruins are the remains of a submerged civilisation – and that the structures represent perhaps the oldest architecture in the world. Connections with Lemuria and Atlantis have also been mentioned.
However, some geologists, such as Robert Schoch of Boston University, and others with knowledge of the area, insist that the underwater ‘buildings’ are natural, mainly the result of ocean erosion and coral reef settlements and similar to other known geological formations in the region. Furthermore, archaeologists also point out that no man-made tools or weapons have been recovered from the site, which would indicate human settlement.
In December 2000 a team from the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) claimed to have discovered the remains of a huge lost city 36 metres underwater in the Gulf of Cambay, off the western coast of India. A year later further acoustic imaging surveys were undertaken and evidence recorded for apparent human settlement at the site, which included the foundations of huge structures, pottery, sections of walls, beads, pieces of sculpture and human bone. One of the wooden finds supposedly from the city has given a radiocarbon date of 7500 BCE, which would make the site 4,000 years earlier than the oldest known civilisation in India.
Research is ongoing at this fascinating site, now known as the Gulf of Khambat Cultural Complex (GKCC), which if the dates are proved correct, may one day radically alter our understanding of the world’s first civilisations. However, it must be added that a number of marine geologists believe that the NIOT scientists have made serious errors in their interpretations of the sonar images obtained from the area. The opinion of these researchers is that the supposedly ancient ‘ruins’, shown as geometric patterns on the images, are natural rock formations and there is no evidence that the artefacts discovered in the area of the site, including the radio-carbon dated block of wood, are associated with it. The debate is still continuing among geologists, archaeologists and historians on this controversial discovery.
Whether any of these underwater finds in the Pacific and Indian Oceans prove to be the remains of forgotten civilisations or not, one thing is certain man will always be searching for a lost homeland or a more spiritually satisfying ancient past. In this sense Lemuria or Mu will always be more than just a physical place.

Was the Leumurian and Atlantean Technical Civilizations helped by the Star People ??

Although Venus has been reported as a planet that could not sustain intelligent lifeforms because it being too hot, the atmosphere too heavy and dangerous gases... we find life right here on earth adapting to conditions that us human could not. Highly intelligent dolphins, with a brain capacity larger than the humans are underwater in an environment that would kill us humans very quickly without a dive suit and oxygen supply. These dolphins would also die within a half hour in our atmosphere, which is deadly to them! This proves that flesh and blood physical intelligent beings can live in an environment that would kill us and vice-versa!

So how can so- called "experts" claim that intelligent life absolutely cannot live in another kind of an atmosphere on a different planet? Furthermore, 7,000 feet under the ocean in pressures that would instantly crush us humans without a heavy diving suit, biologists have found crabs, shrimps, snails, and worms living in 530 degrees F. temperatures, and large worms living in poisonous chemicals from vents erupting from the sea bottom. These creatures ate the deadly chemicals to live! This discovery proves that heat and pressures and chemicals that would kill us are perfectly livable to other types of physical beings.

In the early 1950s, the Canadian Government established PROJECT MAGNET to investigate UFOs. The director of that project, Wilburt B. Smith, publicly wrote that a top U.S. Pentagon official said that UFOs was the biggest secret they had, even greater than the H BOMB.

PROJECT MAGNET has been able to work with Canadian scientists who had continued working on inventions of
Nikola Tesla, one of the most prominent scientists in history. Tesla, who invented the AC/DC electrical current, helped invent radar and much military technology, was the holder of hundreds of successful patented inventions. He had told some associates and friends he had invented an interplanetary communications device with ideas given to him by Venusians.

Arthur Matthews was the last person to have worked with Nikola Tesla; In the 1940s, Matthews and Tesla co-authored a book called 'The Wall Of Light'. ' This was the only non-technical book Tesla ever wrote. Matthews claimed to have had a close encounter with Venusians. They landed on his property in Canada and told him that Tesla was one of them. In Matthews own words we read ,

'Tesla had strange ideas. He always thought he came from the planet Venus. He said as much to me, and the crew of a Venus spaceship said in one of their first messages that a male child was 'born' on board their craft during its trip from Venus to Earth in July, 1856. The little boy was called Nikola, which is the reverse of his family town on Venus. That town is ALOKIN. The ship landed at midnight between July ninth and tenth in a remote mountain province in what is now Yugoslavia. There, according to arrangements, the child was placed in the care of a good man and his wife.'

Although we have such negative reports about Venus, it seems that more is going on with this planet then meets the eye. While we are still theorizing on the possibilities of life in our solar system , around the world we are finding evidence that not only did life exist in our solar system but these life forms came to earth and helped build our technology . Ancient writings in hieroglyphics can be found on the Temple of the Sun, in Tiahuanaco in the Andes, describing how a golden spaceship from Venus had landed there in the dawn of time. The ancient writings tell how a beautiful Venusian women, Orejona, had emerged from the ship and taught the ancients the basics of farming, and the skills to begin civilization.

Ancient writings to validate this can be found left by the Babylonians, Sumerians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Chaldeans, Mayans, Aztecs, Aryans, Assyrians, and the inhabitants of ancient India and Tibet. For all of these ancient civilizations to have fabricated the same lie would have been next to impossible and then we should ask ourselves why would they have fabricated these stories. For what benefit would have come from it. None. Next ask yourself why would our governments and corporate religions hold back the truth.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Real vampires

The aim of this post is merely to provide an explanation on the possibility of real vampires existence. This is not a roleplaying site. I myself am not a vampire so, please, don't write me an email asking to be turned. Yet I'm only an inquiring mind looking for answers. The content of this post based on the online research I have done in the past. I came to my own conclusions after reading some articles on the matter. And, therefore, the "knowledge" I share is also a personal view. I only ask you to be open minded by considering the following writings and, please, don't quickly misjudge me. Though any comments or suggestions are welcomed for you can contact me at anytime.

On real vampires

The myth go back thounsand years though the vampires we are familiar today are mostly based on Eastern European Myths. Moreover,the vampire is spread in modern worldwide media and society: cults of "vampires" have emerged as well as role playing games. But this is not enough to satisfy the bloodlust of some people. Aside from legends and lore,there are those who call themselves "real vampires". And now you may ask: what are real vampires? Forget about Rice and Stocker. They aren't pale, nor dead, nor evil creatures, nor invincible, nor possessed of supernatural abilities. A Vampire is a person who has energy difficulties that cause them to require energy from outside sources to get well-balanced. Reality differs from fiction on many levels.

Since I'm aware of it, there are a number of "vampiric" symptoms though it is important to consider that some of them are found in ordinary human behavior. What makes someone a vampire is a majority of the symptoms, not just one or two. Vampires tend to be the "night timers" for they have inverted circadian rhythms, with body cycles such as temperature peaks as well as menstrual onset. Most of them are photosensitive, avoiding sunlight and easily sunburning. These are some common traits. There are serveral different classifications of vampires and the main types are:

1) Blood/sanguinarian vampires;

2) Psychic vampires;

3) Immortal/classical vampires.

Blood/sanguinarian vampires:

This is a common type and easier to find at any vampire community online. Sanguinarian are vampires yet "humans", in a sense that they are essentially human beings. Nevertheless they have pronounced vampiric traits. They experience blood-craving but this is NOT related to any kind of fetishism. All real vampires need blood for nourishment. If they don't consume blood on a regular basis, they will experience some symptoms like: several mood wings, weakness, lethargy, anger,etc. These symptoms varies from each person. Blood vampires usually have willing donors to suply them with fresh blood. It's hard for them to keep such a "lifestyle" for they usually don't have any support or assistance when they go trough a period of blood deprivation. This is a serious matter. Though most vampires try to ways of alleviate their "hunger" by eating raw meat, high protein foods as a substitute for blood. The reason why their physical body requires blood is still unknown. I've never found any convincing explanation on the subject. Some people defend the idea that vampirism is a psychosomatic symptom. Others try to find a biological explanation. The origins of real vampirism remain obscure, nevertheless it doesn't mean this phenomenon is not real.

Psychic vampires:

PSI vampires have the ability to drain energy from an outside source, be it life force, emotions, thoughts and feelings from people. They are highly empaths (can sense people's emotions) hence they are quite vulnerable to have mood swings. I've heard that most other symptoms (like lowering of the immune system, irritability,etc) are brought about by not feeding properly. Psychic vampires are simply individuals who drain vital energy from the others. They can be divided into two groups: conscious and unconscious psychic vampires. Conscious psychic vampires are those who deliberately drain energy from people. Unconscious psychic vampires drain energy on a non-conscious level, they don't realize they're absorbing energy from those around them. I think this is enough on the subject for this is a site with the focus on "immortal" or classical vampires.

Classical/Immortal vampires

"Immortal" means in the case of a vampire that the life span is much longer than the human life span, nothing more, nothing less. Personally I don't like to use the term "immortal" for it may lead to a misunderstanding. They can't be forever and will die one day, like everyone else. Classicals/Immortals, like blood or sanguinarians vampires, must ingest blood and it is a BIOLOGICAL need, not a psychosomatic symptom. There is an explanation about the VIRUS theory as well as many speculations on the matter.

The Virus Theory

I have heard that a viral vampire (or immortal if you will) is an infected human. The DNA in the human has been altered yet the organism remains human in a sense that the number of chromosomes has not been changed.Immortals are much alive yet they are not humans. I am not an expert at genetics though I assume that vampirism is not viral (based on a medical reality). Why? Because the virus invades a cell, kills it or changes its DNA and replaces the uninfected cells with its replications. The body fights to destroy these same infected cells, if it fails the body can become ill or die. I contend that any process which goes against natural evolution might cause an imbalanced state; nature itself always fight to preserve any specie from harmful consequences (nature does what is the best). Still there is a more plausible theory about vampirism caused by a retrovirus (the difference between the retrovirus and virus is the DNA and RNA factor). In a retrovirus the RNA (genetic material) is incorporated into the host cell that releases its RNA and then makes DNA using the viral RNA as a pattern. Each time a host cell divides it makes a new copy of the DNA with its genes. So probably the vampire virus works in a similar way but it does not destroy the immune system. This is the point. I am not sure if the human DNA can be so drastically altered in such a way without causing any severe reaction or destruction.The body always fights against any intrusion, and this is a natural reaction. Anyway, the infection (if it is possible) can be gained from a person who has the virus and passes it on.

There is also a theory that a person might be genetically predisposed to develop vampirism, not all infected people can be really turned.

Is immortality possible”? Once again I will try to give a scientific argument based on a research I once did. According to a medical research into the extending of human life:

“The deterioration of cell structure that causes aging can be prevented by altering the chromosomal chain by capping the ends of some genes so that the gene does not degenerate as it normally would.” (I do not question the authenticity of this statement since I am not an expert at genetics. So I take it as a truth).

It could result in such an increased lifespan. So “immortality” in a sense of an increased lifespan might be indeed possible according to this view. But then again I question myself if the chromosomal chain can be really altered without causing any aftereffect in the living organism since this drastic alteration is against the natural process of aging. I am of the mind that any “artificial” or induced genetic change brings consequences to the body like a reaction. It is believed that immortal vampires have been going through this same alteration that would increase their life spans. And in this case it would be a natural alteration caused by a type of “virus”. But as I said on my previous post, longevity is not only a matter of genetics. There are many factors which contribute to extend or shorten your lifespan: personal habits (from nourishment to hygiene), environment conditions, the way you lead your life and especially your state of mind. A normal human can prolong his/her lifespan if he/she is careful. Aside from the genetic difference, the length of the lifespan of any immortal vampire also depends on these variables I mentioned. Not only on genetics.

If you are referring to physical immortality in a literal sense (to live forever and never die)…I will dare to affirm that it is impossible. The degeneration of elements is a natural/universal law; everything is perishable on the physical realm. I do believe that nothing goes against this law, nothing can possible break this cycle. Not even man can gain real human immortality through genetic experiments simply because he cannot change nor govern any superior principle. But these are my thoughts. Please, do not take this as I have all the answers. Actually I leave these words up to interpretation and speculation of the readers.

There's another theory which could explain "immortality" on a scentific view:

"On the ends of chromosomes are caps called telomeres, they also function as counting mechanisms or molecular memory keeping track of how many times a cell divides. Aging is in part cellular division. That means each cell has a predetermined number of divisions. Then it stops dividing and goes into senecence (aging) and eventually dies. In other words we are young for as long as those cells continue to divide, and then we get old. Genes that control the aging process in mortals that are located near the telomeres appear to be inactive in young cells. As the telomeres or caps shorten during the aging process the aging genes are activated. Whatever damage has accumulated from heredity and the environment may then mutate the cells abd cause molecular disorder. Thus everything breaks down and leaves us vulnerable to disease. Aging in Mortals appears to be a matter of quality control. The cells continue to reproduce but they end up with diminished function. Eventually they slow down and die. It seems that through the activity of an enzyme called telomerase, the youth protecting activity of the telomeres can be extended. There is an actual chemical in our bodies that may hold the secret to eternal youth. Scientific studies of people with Werner syndrome a genetic disorder involving premature aging were treated with telomerase. The enzyme treated cells lasted indefinitely. (so far) A second study showed the regrowth of capillaries that functioned fully and normally."

(Excerpt from the book "The Science of Vampires" by Katherine Ramsland PHD)

The problem with this logic is the cancer developed when one's cells divide quickly. As for to prevent aging by capping the ends of the genes, if it is indeed possible …this process might not cause cancer due to the fact that there be no increased reproduction of the cells (based on probability). It would “safely” prolong the lifespan I suppose.

From what I have read most theories based on genetics fail to explain how the individual can possible survive the turning process after being infected (the real medical community have already criticized the V5 virus theory). The point to really confirm the existence of traditional vampires is not only a matter of theories/proof to support the evidence of immortality (increased lifespan). A valid explanation about the turning process would be also necessary to confirm their existence; an explanation about how the living organism is drastically altered in such a way without causing any severe reaction to the body (like an ill condition or even death) considering the fact that instead of dieing the infected human is turned. I think no theories go really further on this aspect (based on what I have researched). Perhaps the individual needs to have the right body chemistry to be turned.

As for the enzymes, still I think it is a plausible explanation about how “immortality” or “slow aging” could be possible achieved though this theory contradicts itself in a sense that the increased activity of the enzymes can cause cancer. The increased lifespan (or “immortality” if you will) is only one of the classical/traditional vampire’s traits. Thus that "enzyme" theory does not explain (and many other theories don’t either) the cause of the secondary traits or physical changes developed after the turning process (like faster healing capabilities, improved immune systems and especially the need to ingest blood to name a few) nor it does explain how the individual can be really infected and survive the process.

I cannot deny nor affirm the immortal vampires existence; there is always a possibility. New scientific discoveries may contribute to more plausible explanations on this subject, I am sure it is only a matter of time.

Classicals' origins

The turning process

I am not sure if being turned is really possible (I question myself). If it is possible... I believe the turning process cannot be caused by a single blood exchange. This is not about drinking vampire blood; the human stomach cannot digest blood (a medical fact) and the individual will not be turned if he/she drinks blood, this is pointless and illogical. To be turned (to transmit the "virus" or enzymes to the host cell) a person needs to receive the vampire blood into their circulatory systemby undergoing a transfusion like process. After being infected the genetic material is altered as to cause physical changes in the function of some aspects of the human body such as digestion, increased physical strength, longer life, improved immune systems, etc. I assume that the turning process is not only physical/genetic. Thus it might be also a psychic/ mental process of sorts like a kind of "evolvement". Think about puberty, your body goes through some physical/organic "changes" which affect and influence your behavior as well emotions. Any individual has a psychological reaction to adapt to new circumstances. According to this reasoning the surge of developing senses and emotions might be overwhelming after "being turned" so obviously there might be a mental response to these conditions. Then a psychological reaction occurs.

The source

If traditional vampires are turned and not born...then there might be a "native" source. No. I tend to see it as a remote possibility and a fantasy; how can one single individual originate this different "specie" ("immortal" vampires) or what have you. Analogy: do you really believe that one single individual originated the human race? In regards to the turning process, it is an induced act as I said in my previous post. "Forced" somehow; not natural nor spontaneous and this is pointless to tell you the truth. I do not believe there is a first vampire, a "source" in a literal sense just like in Anne Rice tales. Take this as what you will; everyone is free to believe in whatever they want. If the mutant virus is not the primal cause of this type of vampirism then this talk about the first infected vampire will be more pointless. Not to mention this nonsense. If you stop and think you will come to the conclusion that it is improbable. As you asked: "how did all these turning processes started to occur? And when?" Fiction. I do not believe that one single individual really originated a whole lineage, impossible. To compare with the Ricean vampires- they are supernatural beings and "demons"; the fictional source or cause of vampirism is an evil spirit thirsty for blood (if you read the "Queen of the Damned" you know of what I am talking about). Pure fiction. Forget about the first one. And why the first one to be infected…couldn’t it be a simultaneous ocurrence?

As for immortality...

As I stated before,It means in the case of a vampire that the life span is much longer than the human life span, nothing more, nothing less.But longevity is not only a matter of genetics. The length of a life span is the result of many factors (such as environment conditions, personal habits, state of mind and healthy to name a few). This is scientifically proved.Aside from the genetic condition/mutation... Living so many hundred or even thousand years on these earthly conditions would be almost impossible if not utopian due to these same factors I named and to the lifestyle which man usually leads. "Immortality" is not only about physical resistance. It is also a matter of "mental" resistance as well of a psychological flexibility to adapt and endure any "shock" caused by any drastic change. I assume that the turning process (if it is really possible) is not only physical but also mental on some level; in a sense that a psychological reaction/evolvement does occur. But these are only my thoughts based on my limited knowledge.

Well, these are my thoughts. They are uncertain facts that I leave for you to reflect and come to your own conclusions